Milk that has been leftover time turns sour and (only raw milk or pasteurized milk with added lactic acid bacteria) naturally produces curd. It is obtained by coagulating milk in a sequential process called curdling. It can be a final dairy product or the first stage in cheese-making. The coagulation can be caused by adding rennet or any edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar and then allowing it to coagulate. The increased acidity causes milk proteins (casein) to form into solid masses. There are two ways to make curd, by rennet and by acid. Acids, such as lemon juice, lactic acid are used to make the curd release lactose into the water. So a strong curd made in this way is ideal for people with lactose intolerance. This type of curd is known as Chennai in India.
Using rennet to make curd attaches the lactose to the solid coagulated proteins. Thus it is not recommended for people with lactose intolerance. This type of curd is the commercial cheese available in supermarkets, such as Cheddar, Mozzarella, Swiss, Parmesan. Paneer in India is made by using vegetarian rennets.
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